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An overview of low-cost design and processing techniques for titanium alloys

Titanium and titanium alloy is a kind of metal material with corrosion resistance, high specific strength and good biological affinity.Because aviation, aerospace domain USES titanium demand more, because this titanium alloy is used in this respect widely known.It can also be used in general industrial products, such as titanium for surgical implants, and titanium alloys have attracted much attention in medical devices.Although titanium alloy can be processed into a variety of industrial products, but its demand is not high.This is due to the manufacturing cost of titanium alloy and the high processing cost of titanium alloy products, leading to the higher final product price.Therefore, to increase the demand of titanium alloy products, it is necessary to reduce the production and processing cost of titanium alloy, which is a long-term task.But the task is getting easier.

Among the low-cost reduction of titanium alloy, the most important is the low-cost reduction process from titanium ore to titanium metal. At present, various direct reduction methods and continuous reduction methods of titanium are under study. 

In this paper, the low-cost design of titanium alloy and the low-cost processing technology of titanium alloy are summarized.

Low cost technology of production process

钛合金产品的生产中,以切削加工、研磨加工代表的加工工艺成本颇高。因此,利用上述低成本合金,开发低成本化的加工技术非常重要。以Ti-6Al-4V合金为代表的钛合金加工中,弯曲加工比较困难,为防止氧化,加热时必须在惰性气体以及真空环境中进行。同时,热处理加工使显微组织发生显著变化,因此需要确立合理的热处理加工工艺。目前我国虽然引进了大型锻造设备,但设备的稳定运转还尚需时日,大型零部件的生产需要的切削加工量也将增多。因此,减少钛合金的切削加工量非常重要,而且确立组装大型零部件的接合方法也十分必要。通常减少钛合金切削加工有效的办法是粉末冶金法、金属粉末射出成型法(MIM)、激光成型法、电子束积层成型法(EBM)等近净成形法,确立有效的激光焊接法、摩擦搅拌焊(FSW)等新型接合技术也非常必要。另外,降低弯曲加工困难的高效有效弯曲加工技术也有望得以确立。再就是在使用上述低成本钛合金时,有必要通过控制显微组织来改善特性,因此,有必要确立合适的热处理技术。

In the production of titanium alloy products, the processing cost represented by cutting and grinding is quite high. Therefore, it is very important to develop low-cost processing technology by using the low-cost alloy. It is difficult to bend titanium alloy, which is represented by Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In order to prevent oxidation, heating must be carried out in inert gas and vacuum environment. At the same time, the microstructure changes significantly after heat treatment, so it is necessary to establish a reasonable heat treatment process. At present, although large forging equipment has been introduced into China, the stable operation of the equipment still needs time, and the production of large parts will also require more cutting. Therefore, it is very important to reduce the machining amount of titanium alloy, and it is also necessary to establish the joining method for assembling large parts. In general, the effective methods to reduce titanium alloy cutting are powder metallurgy, metal powder injection molding (MIM), laser molding, electron beam deposition molding (EBM) and other near net forming methods. It is also necessary to establish effective laser welding, friction stir welding (FSW) and other new joint technologies. In addition, the efficient and effective bending technology to reduce the difficulty of bending is also expected to be established. In addition, it is necessary to control the microstructure to improve the properties when using the low-cost titanium alloy. Therefore, it is necessary to establish appropriate heat treatment technology.

与传统合金相比,通过采用低温加工低成本钛合金的办法可以降低钛合金的加工成本。普遍使用的Ti-6Al-4V合金板中,将数张板重叠,钢板包在外面进行热加工(这种方法被称为包套加工),这就导致了成本的居高不下。

Compared with the traditional alloy, the low-cost titanium alloy can be processed at low temperature to reduce the processing cost. In the commonly used Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate, several plates are overlapped, and the steel plate is wrapped outside for hot processing (this method is called cladding processing), which leads to high cost.

低成本钛合金挤压材通过采用局部加热的弯曲加工技术,锻件则通过机械加工技术和焊接技术(如激光焊接)的组合有望实现飞机零部件的低成本化生产。综上所述,在钛合金的低成本化中,钛合金粉末的近净成形法备受瞩目。MIM法适合小型零部件的生产,可有望实现各种合金的生产。通过MIM法往Ti-6Al-4V合金中添加适量的Fe、Cr、Mo,然后得出其与抗张强度以及延展性的关系。通过添加这些元素,提高了Ti-6Al-4V的强度,在一定的条件下,可以得到超过1000MPa的抗张强度和超过10%的延展性。

The low-cost titanium alloy extrusion material adopts the bending processing technology of local heating, and the forging is expected to realize the low-cost production of aircraft parts through the combination of machining technology and welding technology (such as laser welding). To sum up, in the low cost of titanium alloy, the near net forming method of titanium alloy powder attracts more and more attention. MIM method is suitable for the production of small parts, and it is expected to realize the production of various alloys. The relationship between tensile strength and ductility of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was obtained by adding Fe, Cr and Mo into the alloy by MIM method. By adding these elements, the strength of Ti-6Al-4V is improved. Under certain conditions, the tensile strength and ductility of more than 1000MPa and more than 10% can be obtained.

近来,电子束层压法备受瞩目。通过电子束层压法制成的拥有骨传导功能的Ti-6Al-4V合金植入物外观。可以通过电子束层压法直接生产如此形状如此复杂的产品。

Recently, the electron beam lamination method has attracted much attention. The appearance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy implant with bone conduction function was made by electron beam lamination. It is possible to produce such a complex product directly by electron beam lamination.

结束语

Concluding remarks

关于钛合金低成本化的课题可作如下考虑:

The subject of low cost titanium alloy can be considered as follows:

  1. 1. Reduction of smelting cost

  2. (1) continuous development of Kroll smelting method and new smelting method (direct reduction method)

  3. (2)提高直接还原法生产的O含量较高的钛的纯度

  4. (2) improve the purity of titanium with high o content produced by direct reduction

  5. (3)提高连续化的Kroll法生产的高Fe含量的钛的性能

  6. (3) improve the properties of titanium with high Fe content produced by continuous Kroll Process

  7. 2. Low cost of processing technology

  8. (1) low cost of plastic processing technology

  9. (2)切削加工工艺的低成本化

  10. (2) low cost of cutting process

  11. (3)近净成形加工的适用:减少材料的切削量以及加工量

  12. (3) application of near net forming: reduce cutting amount and machining amount of materials

  13. 3. Design and development of low cost alloy

  14. (1) reduction of high cost alloy elements

  15. (2)低成本置换型元素的利用

  16. (2) utilization of low cost replacement elements

  17. (3)低成本侵入型轻元素的利用

  18. (3) utilization of low cost invasive light elements

  19. (4)可循环材料的利用

  20. (4) utilization of recyclable materials

  21. 4. Improve performance by controlling organizational structure

  22. 5. Develop application fields

  1. The low cost of titanium alloy must solve the above problems, which will take a long time to solve. By working hard to solve the above problems, the low cost of titanium alloy will be realized eventually.



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