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The casting characteristics of titanium and titanium alloy were summarized

The casting of titanium and titanium alloy is usually made of gray cast iron (htl50 or HT200), cast steel (zg200-400), cast copper (pure copper or brass) and a very small amount of refractory metal (such as molybdenum). Except for refractory metals, the melting points of these materials are all lower than that of titanium. They can be used as molds for casting titanium alloys because: 

  1. (1) the thermal conductivity of these materials is higher than that of titanium, and the heat generated by the pouring of titanium liquid into the mold is transferred rapidly;

  2. (2)钛的热导率低,钛液挠人铸型与型面接触后,立即凝固形成一层薄壳,从而可有效地加大持型的温度梯度。

  3. (2) the thermal conductivity of titanium is low. After the titanium liquid scratched the mold and contacted with the mold surface, it solidified immediately to form a thin shell, which can effectively increase the temperature gradient of holding mold.

The above metal mold materials have their own advantages and disadvantages:

  1. (1) cast iron has good rigidity, easy processing, low price and long service life. It is stable for molten titanium at low temperature. At the same time, because of the flake graphite structure in it, titanium liquid has good wettability, which is conducive to the filling of titanium liquid and the forming of castings. Its disadvantages are high coefficient of linear expansion and low melting point. Therefore, it is usually only suitable for the outer mold of casting, not for the core.

  2. (2)铸钢与铸铁相似,比铸铁强度高,更耐用,但变形比铸铁略大。

  3. (2) cast steel is similar to cast iron, with higher strength and durability than cast iron, but its deformation is slightly larger than cast iron.

  4. (3)铸铜的热导率很高,但强度低,刚性差,只能用于制造小件的铸型,价格高,一般很少用。

  5. (3) the thermal conductivity of cast copper is very high, but its strength is low and its rigidity is poor. It can only be used to make small castings with high price.

  6. (4)难熔金属耐高温,且硬度高、耐磨,但很脆,价格昂贵,加工性不好,主要用钼作压铸的冲头。

  7. (4) refractory metal is resistant to high temperature, high hardness, wear-resistant, but very brittle, expensive, and poor processability. Molybdenum is mainly used as die-casting punch.

The key of the metal mold casting lies in the design of the mold, which is directly related to the quality and dimensional accuracy of the casting, the life of the mold, the processing and manufacturing cost of the mold. In addition to the design principle of common metal mold, the characteristics of titanium and titanium alloy casting must also be considered in the design, which can be summarized as follows:

  1. (1) bottom injection shall be adopted as far as possible;

  2. (2)应采用开放式的浇注系统;

  3. (2) open pouring system shall be adopted;

  4. (3)尽量采用离心浇注,按离心浇注的要求设计金属铸型的结构和固定方式。

  5. (3) centrifugal casting shall be adopted as far as possible, and the structure and fixing mode of metal mold shall be designed according to the requirements of centrifugal casting.

In order to reduce the cost of the metal mold and improve the service life of the metal mold, the metal mold and the machined graphite mold can be used together. Graphite inlaid block can be used for mold cavity which is not easy to be lifted and damaged, and machined graphite can be used for all pouring systems. Titanium alloy artificial joint mold is a combination of metal mold and machined graphite. The machined graphite parts must be baked at a higher temperature (no more than 400 ℃) before pouring, preferably in vacuum at 950-1000 ℃ for 1.0-2.0h to remove the adsorbed gas.

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